In the 18th century in England the whole process started and then from there it went worldwide, we are talking about the Industrial Revolution. This was the start of England’s economic development. The main parts of the Industrial Revolution were technological (this included new material, steel and iron) and cultural. Here they also started the factory system, thus helped with labour and increase in production. They developed the transportation system which included the locomotive.
The first Industrial Revolution
The first Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the period 1760 to 1830. They knew they had a head start and they put a ban on exporting the machinery so that no one else could steal their ideas, but because they saw a big opportunity abroad with the machinery they started to export. Two men brought the Revolution to Belgium by opening machine shops, it was the first country in Europe to be transformed economically. The Belgium people went for the iron and steel most of the time. While they were busy concentrating on their own show, the French took the lead and became the industrial power, yet they stayed behind England. Reaching the 20th century the eastern European countries were far behind.
During the Industrial Revolution children as young as six years old had to work hard hours sometimes without any pay, they often worked for 19 hours with only a one-hour break. Children worked with heavy and dangerous equipment in horrible conditions. If a child was an orphan the labour would be worse as they can be used like slaves, they justified their wrong actions by providing the orphan children with food, clothing and shelter.
When the industry was at a high, there weren’t many laws to help or to protect the workers. Many of the factories were owned by Members of the Parliament so they did not do much effort to pass new laws to help them. The factory inspectors could be bribed as they were also under paid, they rarely kept records of the children’s ages’ or the information about the adults that worked for them.
The Second Industrial Revolution
Coming up to the 20th century it is starting with the “new” Industrial Revolution which started in the late 19th century. The new Revolution is based on the natural and synthetic (included plastics and new energy sources) resources that are being exported. Combined with all of that we also get advanced developments in machines like computers and how they provide a rise to the whole outside world. Most of the industries by the mid-19th century was all computerised.
North and South by Elizabeth Gaskell
The Most Powerful Idea in The World by William Rosen
Hard Times by Charles Dickens
Industrial Revolution: The Making of the Modern World 1776-1914 by Gavin Weightman
The Truth by Terry Pratchett
The Railway Journey: The Industrialization and Perception of Time and Space by Wolfgang SchivelBusch